Solar Energy Commercialization Discussion Paper.

Solar Energy Commercialization Discussion Paper.

An understanding of the solar resource
• An understanding of the components of photovoltaic systems • An understanding of the design and operation of PV systems at residential and non-residential scales • An introduction to the economics and policies of PV systems
Lecture 01-Learning Objectives
• Course objectives and outcomes. Solar Energy Commercialization Discussion Paper.
• Course organization, texts, assignments, etc. • An overview of the Solar Enterprise • Energy and Power – Consumption, present and future • Energy and Power – Definitions
1. Dr. Ronald Roedel’s lecture slides
2. Wood Mackenzie :
3. U.S. Energy Information Administration :
4. Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) :
5. Office Of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy :
U.S Electricity Generation by sector
Source : Energy Information Administration –
U.S Electricity Generation by Renewables
Source : Energy Information Administration –
Global Electricity Generation – Wind
Source : Wood Mackenzie – Global wind power market outlook update: Q2 2019 ––Renewables/global-wind-power-market-outlook-update-q2-2019/


The Solar Enterprise
■ Solar business has witnessed exponential growth in the last two decades both on a global scale and national scale.
■ Currently 5% of U.S electricity demand is supplied by solar power (77.7GW) Solar Energy Commercialization Discussion Paper.
Photovoltaic System Installations in U.S
Source : Solar Market Insight Report 2019 Q4 –
Photovoltaic System Installations in U.S
■ Latest solar market insights and policy updates in all 50 states and Washington, D.C can be accessed on the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) website-
■ All market data is current through Q4 2019.
Annual PV Installations
Source : Global solar PV installations to reach record high in 2019 –
Solar power -Pros
■ Renewable input power – solar power is a non-depleting source. ■ Direct conversion of forms of energy – optical energy to electrical energy. ■ Clean energy – carbon footprint eliminated. ■ Abundance of raw material for cell construction – silicon, which is a primary element in the solar cell construction is abundantly available on earth’s crust. ■ Reliable and durable technology – solar cells are robust and longlasting. Solar Energy Commercialization Discussion Paper.
Renewables versus coal –power generation
Solar power -Cons
■ Energy source intermittent – solar power is unavailable throughout the day. ■ Fluctuating output – power grid instability due to shadows and clouds. ■ Low power density – carbon footprint eliminated. ■ low power density– 80% of incident sunlight is unused. ■ power curve does not match the system demand profile – with higher penetration, its marginal value shrinks to zero. ■ Supply-demand curve mismatch – power curve does not match the system demand profile.
Undesirable effects of solar penetration
Source : Confronting the Duck Curve: How to Address Over-Generation of Solar Energy
Growth of solar power -Favorable factors
• Technological Factors • Silicon solar cells and modules • Inexhaustible input power at zero cost • Societal Factors • Concerns about fossil fuel and nuclear power plants • An increasing awareness of sustainability issues • Economic Factors • Steady reduction in cost of PV systems • Favorable government policies and business climate
Factors impeding Growth of solar power PV system components • Dependence on materials that are not earth-abundant • High labor costs New PV system components • Problems with smart components Certain economic and business factors • Hostile interactions with utilities, utility regulating bodies – Net metering issues, Power demand charges • Expansion of low-cost natural gas supply and use in utility scale electricity generation • Tariffs • Recent analysis showing that solar energy suffers from a “merit order effect” which will shrink its value with increasing penetration into the energy market
Global Energy Storage Overview
Source : Wood Mackenzie –
World Energy Overview
What these units mean : • Quad = a quadrillion BTUs • BTU = the amount of energy necessary to raise or lower the temperature of one pound of water one degree F • (One four inch wooden kitchen match consumed completely generates approximately 1 BTU)
Source : EIA projects 28% increase in world energy use by 2040-
World Energy Overview
Source :
Human Development Index. Solar Energy Commercialization Discussion Paper.
The United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) relates energy use to the quality of life to which most humans aspire. The middle class averages about 0.8 on the HDI and requires access to over 3,000 kWhrs per person per year. 80% of the world’s population of over 7 billion people is below 0.8 on the HDI.
Source : Wright and Conca, 2007) –
World Energy Overview
Figure 1
Human Development Index
• The Human Development Index could be used to establish an estimate of the energy needs for the future • Assumptions: o In the near future, the population of the planet will exceed 8 billion o Let us assume we want the HDI for each nation to be 0.90 o From the chart on the previous slide, we would require access to 4MWh of electrical energy/per person (per year) o Therefore, the annual electricity requirement is  Eglobal,annual =  8E09 people ( ) ⋅  4MWh/person ( ) = 32,000 TWh (or 32 PWh)
Human Development Index Continued
• Current annual electricity generation is approximately 24 PWh, and roughly 23% is produced by renewable sources
• With a global effort to carry out more energy efficiency measures and more deployment of renewable energy, the 32 PWh target could be achieved in a 10-15 year time frame. However, the population will be much closer to 10 billion by then.

HW01 Pdf

Solar Energy Commercialization Discussion Paper.

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