National Security and Cyberspace Essay.

National Security and Cyberspace Essay.


The Department of Homeland Security has a history of being ineffectiveatcrime in cyberspace, targeting the US’ critical infrastructure. Numerous attacks through the years have weakened the US government’s defensive posture and have caused the Federal and State Governments to work against malicious hackers.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.Cyberspace has meshed into every aspect of American life; it makes the impact of cyberterrorism that much stronger (Lowery, 2014). Much of the American infrastructure relies on one another (Limba, et al., 2017); if one area is damaged, it may harm the infrastructure.There are a few ways to combat these threats, but a primary method is for a stronger government presence on the internet.This government focused approach would increase its authority to conduct counterintelligence and counterterrorism. An alternative would see the reigns given over to private ISPs or internet service providers to police their own networks, affecting Americans’ digital freedom using their services.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.


Each agency of the US Government could face cyber threats from enemies domestic and abroad and has taken action to secure its own cyberinfrastructure. However, after the attacks on 9/11, the newly founded Department of Homeland Security benefitted from the Patriot Act, which allowed American law enforcement and spy agencies into the web like never before.American citizens have not always appreciated this act’s scope, and many have called to repeal what they consider a violation of their constitutional rights.National Security and Cyberspace Essay. Still, some argue in the changing battlefield of the 21st Century; the US needs to dominate cyberspace just as it would on the land or sea. Initially, the Patriot Act was used as an authority for federal agencies to conduct surveillance on Americans they believed to be involved with terrorism or foreign power. This would happen without a warrant. There have been some federal oversight to protect privacy, specifically coming from FISA courts.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.

With enemies of the US either planning their attacks on the web in anonymous chatrooms or directly attacking the cyberspace owned by the government, many Americans are not rushing to repeal an act that has so far been successful in keeping them safe. Especially in the last few years, nation-states like Russia, China, and Iran have taken to the web to either probe domestic defenses or flat out steal information. It has been known the Russians have taken to American social media to stir dissent among voters and to mislead or cast doubt on democratic elections deliberately. Another example is the Chinese hack of the Office of Personnel Management in 2015. In this specific breach, the PRC stole the private information of federal employees and military personnel, many of whom have high-security clearance levels.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.

Another way to secure the web has been to reduce net neutrality and allowing internet providers to beef up their own security. This would allow communications companies like Verizon and Comcast to have a stronger hold on which websites they allow to access their networks. Of course, this could be very effective in finding and rooting out malicious actorson the web who would want to harm the national infrastructure. The detractors of this solution point out there would be very little to stop the internet service providers from spying on its customers and even preventing internet access to websites they might view as threats or competitors. So it would be a trade in security from hackers, but more control coming from a corporation that does not answer to the government and could even be bought by a foreign country.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.

Ultimately, there is plenty to be said about the United States’ security as the country moves into the 21st Century. Threats that were not conceived of 40 years ago are now taking their place as the gravest possibilities. Without knowing the future, it is impossible to know how these issues will play out and how the American people want to be protected. As time moves on,the Federal government creates and takes more power for itself and enables its agencies and resources to act more broadly. Few people believe cyber threats will decrease. In fact, many foresee the battlefields of the future existing in cyberspace, so it is up to today’s people to decide if they want a government controlled network or a private company solution.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.


This assignment examines the importance of the cost of quality to an organization. Through this, we will gain a better understanding of how we can measure the cost of quality in an organization and what benefits can be gained from the cost of quality.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.


This is a true story that dominated the media in Canada in the summer of 2008 and shook an established and trusted company to its core. Once the crisis was over, 22 people had died as a result of tainted meat. More details are easily available online but the following is from an April 2013 Financial Times article.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.

The Story

Maple Leaf Foods is one of the leading food processing companies in Canada, where many of its processed meat brands are household names. The company also supplies restaurants and hotels.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.

The Challenge

On August 12 2008 management became aware of a possible case of listeriosis contamination at one of its meat processing plants near Toronto. By August 23 the contamination had been confirmed and by the end of September more than 20 people’s deaths had been linked to the listeriosis outbreak associated with Maple Leaf Foods. Many more fell ill. The Canadian press attacked the company and a number of class-action lawsuits were launched on behalf of victims and their relatives. Consumers started to avoid Maple Leaf brands, and trade customers began switching to other suppliers.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.

The Response

Maple Leaf Foods responded swiftly. All products from the affected plant were recalled as soon as the presence of listeriosis was confirmed. Michael McCain, chief executive, took personal charge. He later told the Toronto Globe & Mail that in his handling of the crisis, “there are two advisers I’ve paid no attention to. The first are the lawyers, and the second are the accountants.” His public offer of a full apology and acceptance that Maple Leaf Foods was solely responsible was considered a brave decision because it left the company open to legal action. Mr. McCain accepted this risk: the point was to act first in the interest of public health and then to be open and transparent. The management dealt with the crisis on a number of fronts, including PR, strategy and restructuring.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.


Analyze the above scenario using the 4 Costs of Quality given below:

·        Appraisal cost

·        Prevention cost

·        Internal failure cost

·        External failure cost


Your detailed analysis and report should reflect:

·        Root cause(s) of the issue

·        What should have been done to prevent the current situation?

·        What was done to turn the situation around?

·        How did Mr. McCain manage this crisis?


Follow all reporting and assignment guidelines. Do not produce a Q & A format report. Instead embed the answers in a logical manner.

The United States healthcare system has been powered by private health insurance companies for decades. The way the current system works is an individual can either pay for health insurance out of pocket or their employer provides it to the individual. National Security and Cyberspace Essay.For those who can neither afford to pay for private coverage nor have the health care benefit included in their employment package, the third option is Medicare or Medicaid. These two programs represent the third option available to Americans who require coverage and it is provided by the Federal Government.There are a few issues with this three-option system.National Security and Cyberspace Essay. If an individual pays for health insurance themselves, that individual will run the risk of having their insurance dropped because the individual has a preexisting condition, or the premium may be raised based on a preexisting condition. The second option is through an employer. This can also be tricky as a change in employment might leave some without coverage or there may be a lapse between the new insurance starts. The third option, known as the Affordable Care Act or “Obamacare”, appears to be the best choice.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.

The Affordable Care Act can be viewed as an expansion of the meager Medicare and Medicaid system. Medicare, provided by the government, covers for emergencies and other urgent care needs, but it cannot be relied upon for regular care or checkups.National Security and Cyberspace Essay. Preventative care would alleviate some of the need for emergency room visits by identifying an individual’s conditions and treating them before it turns into an emergency situation. The Affordable Care Act was introduced by former President Obama as an initial campaign corner stone when he ran for the Presidential office in 2008. He believed that too many Americans were in jeopardy from predatory health insurance companies. He also believed that the healthcare system was too expensive for anyone to be able to pay for it themselves.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.

An additional point of value for the Affordable Care Act would be its effect on the cost of healthcare provided. With the Federal Government providing coverage for all Americans, regardless of any additional insurance policies, the general cost of hospital bills and care would sharply decline. This would be due to governmental oversight that accompanies the Affordable Care Act. It would cause the pharmaceutical companies to sell the medications at a margin of the profit that the companies currently receive. The percentage of Americans who could not fill prescriptions because they were too costly was at a peak in 2009 at 8.3 percent. The Affordable Care Act showed its effectiveness by causing the percentage of Americans that cannot afford to fill their prescriptions down to 5.2 percent.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.

The primary opposition of theAffordable Care Act stems from the political opponents of former President Obama. The Republican Party controlled legislature created many roadblocks for then President Obama with endless rhetoric of a communist plot to take over. Another moral opposition point was that the Affordable Care Act would be allowing the government into the doctor’s office that can be viewed as “playing God” for an individual. This would have been coming out in defense of our traditional healthcare system, which utilized the private healthcare companies more. However, this is not unexpected as the Republican Party has typically favored expanding business rather than expanding governmental powers.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.


Ultimately, the American healthcare system is a complex system which is woven with individually intricate threads. The effects of altering one thread of the healthcare system will have impacts on other aspects of the healthcare system and other aspects of the United States. Critics to the Affordable Care Act have multiple reasons why they oppose it.National Security and Cyberspace Essay. These reasons stem from the economic dependency for certain industries to thriveto the good old-fashioned rebellious American spiritwhich is suspicious of authority and government intervention. However, as we move deeper into the 21st Century, it can be viewed by some that the United States is lagging behind its First World peers in terms of how it cares for its citizens. Many Americans and political parties in the Government believe it is the responsibility of the State to ensure the voting public is properly educated and healthy. Though the Affordable Care Act does not include all aspects of health, it ensures Americans are not suffering with treatable medical issues unnecessarily. Many Americans view the Affordable Care Act asan investment into the future of the United States and its citizens.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.



This letter brings to your attention the data security concerns that have recently occurred within the US state departments, especially those who hold sensitive information of millions of citizens in regard to providing crucial social services. One such department is the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), in which the health data, includingthat of citizens is bestowed with the department for safe custody. Nevertheless, due to the advancement in technology, there has been rising opportunities for cyber-attack right from the health facility level, all the way to the state department level, with an intention of accessing the data illegally for the purpose of either distorting the data or for an unauthorized use in various illegal activities.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.


With your department, sensitive personal information is held up, which means it is one of the prone state departments that require high level measures concerning the cyber security to control illegal data access, both internally, as well as externally. To address this concern, two major steps must be put in place as measures to control cyber attack and mitigate the data loss or illegal use that may cost the department. These measures include control of system reprogramming, as well as multi-level system access.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.


For control of system reprogramming, this majorly protects the cyber attack that may happen internally within the department, especially concerning those in charge of IT. A multi-level authorization should be put in place to notify several authorized persons within the department to be aware of any major changes to the system. This avoids unauthorized reprogramming that may give illegal access to data resulting in an internal cyber-attack.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.


On the other hand, multi-level access involves putting measures such as strong firewalls that will deny illegal access from external elements and as well, alert the system managers of any unauthorized access attempt in order to take the necessary precautions. In recent times, ethical hackers have been engaged by various institutions inorder to strengthen the data security through a continued establishment of the system gaps that may exist and filling these gaps through the necessary system upgrades.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.


It is my humble appeal that your department will take the necessary precautions in order to safeguard the personal information held by your department for the interests of millions of Americans who may be prone to cyber attack if the department ignores these measures that are of vital concerns when it comes to data security.National Security and Cyberspace Essay.

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