Miami Epidemiology and Healthy People 2020 Program Essay

Miami Epidemiology and Healthy People 2020 Program Essay


The analysis and study of disease distribution and determinants of illness condition in various populations are significant for forming a healthy nation. Increasing risks of infectious diseases and other illness conditions caused certain efforts to conduct appropriate surveillance and prevent some diseases. Thus, it is important to review the initiatives made by the U.S. federal government to improve the health of American people, as well as conduct an analysis of the most outspread communicable diseases.Miami Epidemiology and Healthy People 2020 Program Essay

Review of Healthy People 2020 Initiative

Healthy People can be defined as a set of objectives and goals issued each decade to improve the health of people living in the United States and guide illness prevention efforts and national promotion of healthy lifestyle. Healthy People 2020 is the fourth issue of the initiatives released by the Department of Health and Human Services. The objectives and goals of this initiative are to increase people’s understanding of health and illness conditions, to achieve longer lives without diseases and injuries that can be prevented, and to secure absence of disparities among the groups of population providing them with health equity. The initiatives are also meant to provide social environments to promote healthy behavior and high quality of life across the different stages of life. It is stated that health indicators of the initiative were selected on the basis of health determinants and outcomes across life stages (“Leading health indicators,” 2018). The leading indicators of the initiative include individuals with medical insurance, people with hypertension, diabetes or cancer, index of air quality, homicides, suicides, injuries fatal for health, people with HIV or alcohol and drug addiction, and tobacco smokers. These indicators are divided into categories to make them easy to navigate.Miami Epidemiology and Healthy People 2020 Program Essay

Epidemiological Data Related to Communicable Diseases in Miami, Florida

The infectious diseases and immunization are expected to increase the length and quality of life as well. Therefore, each city and county public health department collects an epidemiological and surveillance data on population-based communicable diseases. The public health department of Miami (zip code 33128) publishes a monthly report of reportable diseases and conditions providing the information about a number of reported cases for each illness. According to this report, last year such infectious diseases as hepatitis, pertussis, malaria, gonorrhea, and AIDS were registered in the community. Still, there was only one case of pediatric death from influenza (“Miami-Dade County monthly report,” 2017).Miami Epidemiology and Healthy People 2020 Program Essay


Analysis of Population-Based Communicable Diseases

The increasing number of hepatitis A and Hepatitis B cases, as well as a significant number of pertussis cases, is believed to affect the community of Miami at present. It is emphasized that hepatitis A and acute hepatitis B are the most frequently registered infectious diseases among the Hispanic and American Indian population in the United States (“Guidelines for viral hepatitis,” 2018). Hepatitis may cause periodic epidemics affecting the community. It is crucial to identify people with this disease and investigate all the reported cases.

Hepatitis A does not cause any chronic conditions and complications. Still, some researchers state that “an estimated 15% to 25% of persons with chronic HBV infection die of cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma” (LeFevre, 2014, p. 58). Therefore, the individuals with high risk of hepatitis such as people who have sex with multiple partners, use drugs or have a job that exposes one’s to human blood should be offered a hepatitis screening at the hospital. In Miami, a hepatitis program exists, which helps to educate residents about hepatitis prevention and provide the people of high-risk groups with the vaccine. Still, the rates of the registered cases remain rather high.Miami Epidemiology and Healthy People 2020 Program Essay

 The number of reported pertussis cases is considered to be rather high and might affect the community triggering an epidemic. The vaccination against this disease is very effective, especially among children. Some researchers state that “vaccination strategies have changed during the past years and booster doses have been implemented in national vaccination program” (Barkoff et al., 2014, p. 142). There are many vaccine strategies to prevent pertussis including maternal vaccination recommended for pregnant women. Moreover, vaccines stay one of the most cost-effective methods to prevent an infectious disease. Therefore, timely detection of the disease symptoms is not enough and people should be encouraged to vaccinate their children. Some researchers note that the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention is searching the ways to extend its powers to individuals who are believed to have a communicable disease to ensure early reaction to emerging threats (Hodge Jr, Gostin, Parmet, Nuzzo, & Phelan, 2017).

The most effective prevention strategy to control these diseases is timely immunization. This strategy is the priority of Healthy People 2020 initiative as well. It includes such aspects as the proper and timely use of a vaccine, guidelines for testing and screening, as well as scientific improvements in detecting and preventing the infectious diseases.Miami Epidemiology and Healthy People 2020 Program Essay


The given paper reviewed the initiatives made by the U.S. federal government to improve the health of American people, as well as conducted an analysis of the most outspread communicable diseases in Miami, Florida. To identify epidemiological data, information from a county public health department of Miami was used. Three population-based communicable diseases were analyzed.Miami Epidemiology and Healthy People 2020 Program Essay


Barkoff, A. M., Guiso, N., Guillot, S., Xing, D., Markey, K., Berbers, G.,… & He, Q. (2014). A rapid ELISA-based method for screening Bordetella pertussis strain production of antigens included in current acellular pertussis vaccines. Journal of Immunological Methods, 408(1), 142-148.

Guidelines for viral hepatitis surveillance and case management. (2018). Web.

Hodge Jr, J. G., Gostin, L. O., Parmet, W. E., Nuzzo, J. B., & Phelan, A. (2017). Federal powers to control communicable conditions: Call for reforms to assure national preparedness and promote global security. Health Security, 15(1), 123-126.

Leading health indicators development and framework. (2018). Web.

 LeFevre, M. L. (2014). Screening for hepatitis B virus infection in nonpregnant adolescents and adults: US preventive services task force recommendation statement screening for hepatitis B virus infection. Annals of Internal Medicine, 161(1), 58-66.

Miami-Dade County monthly report: Select reportable disease/conditions. (2017). Epi Monthly Report, 18(12), 1-4. Miami Epidemiology and Healthy People 2020 Program Essay

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