Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.

Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.

Concern has been involved in the provision of health services to poor people in developing countries for more than thirty years. These services have had a remarkable and positive effect on the health of many
people and this, in turn, has enabled many families to improve their social and economic circumstances.
This policy builds on Concern’s experience over the
years and on learning from other organisations. It is intended to create a framework so that Concern can
take cognisance of external conditions and constantly improve its effectiveness in creating not only improved health for millions, but also the human capital for lasting social and economic change.
 The Right to Health
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
affirmed the right of all people to adequate food, health and medical care.
The Constitution of the World Health Organisation
(WHO) states, ‘The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political, economic or social condition.’
3. The Policy Environment
There have been considerable improvements in access to and coverage by health care services in the last twenty-five years and progress has been made in
global health status in terms of life expectancy and a lowering of infant mortality rates. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
Gains have not been equally distributed worldwide and although the situation is improving in percentage terms, increasing numbers of people in the poorest countries suffer high mortality and morbidity rates,
with sub-Saharan African countries being the most seriously affected (WHO, 1996). Those living in absolute poverty are five times more likely to die before reaching the age of five years (WHO, 2000).
Economic decline, and HIV/AIDS, now the leading
cause of death in Africa (WHO, 2000), are reversing
hard-won development and health gains, including
progress on life expectancy and child survival.

HIV/AIDS is one of the most daunting problems facing
the world today. Although it is much more than a
health problem, the spread of HIV/AIDS cannot be
tackled without health initiatives being established alongside a range of other approaches.
Many factors limit progress in improving the health situation in developing countries:
• Economic decline, debt and structural adjustment,
with reduced health spending in many of the
poorest countries. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
• Increasing inequities and marginalisation within
and between countries.
• Internal political instability, repressive
governments and ongoing conflict.
• Increasing globalisation, transnational trav Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.el and
the economic power of multinationals.
• Decreasing overall international development
assistance and changing donor priorities, with
support for democratisation, decentralisation and
civil society initiatives.
• Population growth, especially in urban areas, and
population displacement in conflict areas.
• Resource degradation, increasing natural disasters
and environmental pollution.
• Epidemiological transition, with new and reemerging diseases.
• Increasingly powerful arms, tobacco, alcohol,
pharmaceutical, media and advertising industries.
• Erosion of traditional values and cultural practices,
and changing gender roles.
Globalisation has the potential to improve the
situation in the longer term.
Concern Worldwide – Health Policy: Approved by Council March 2002
Health Policy
“Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social
well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”
World Health Organisation (WHO), World Health Report 2000
The establishment of the following International
Development Targets for Health has opened up the
possibility of progress:
• Reduce by two-thirds the rate of infant and child
mortality by 2015. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
• Reduce by three-quarters the rate of maternal
mortality by 2015.
• Attain universal access to reproductive health.
• Achieve a 25% reduction in HIV infection rates
among 15-24 year olds in worst affected countries
by 2005, and globally by 2015.
• Reduce TB and malaria mortality by 50% by 2010.
Concern is committed to contributing towards meeting
these targets.
Health of the Poorest
The most prevalent problems among poorest
populations, and affecting children less than five years
old in particular, include diarrhoea, malnutrition,
measles, malaria and respiratory infections. It has been
estimated that these five conditions cause 75% of
child deaths (WHO, 1999).
TB and opportunistic infections are among the leading
causes of death among adults in Africa and Asia. AIDS
is a relatively new hazard for the poor. More than 95%
of those infected with HIV now live in the developing
world (WHO, 2000). Sub-Saharan Africa alone
accounts for 28.1 million of the 40 million people
currently infected with HIV/AIDS and prevalence rates
among adults stand at a staggering 8.4% (UNAIDS,
Maternal mortality is by far the greatest cause of
premature death amongst poor women in developing
countries, with rates as high as 44 per 10,000 live
births. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
 Constraints to Good
Health Systems
Health system capacity and sustainability depend on
the availability of infrastructure, materials, equipment
and human resources. Throughout the developing
world, lack of government financing for health
services results in inadequate, or in some cases
collapsing, systems. Problems such as debt and
sanctions have led to a deterioration of services in
some countries, while weak commitment by
governments to Primary Health Care (PHC) is the
primary cause in other countries. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
Influxes of refugee or Internally Displaced Persons
(IDP) populations, and even planned repatriation, can
overwhelm aid agencies and host governments alike.
Weak Management and
Inadequate Participation
Poorly planned decentralisation and institutional
weaknesses, such as lack of supervision and weak
health information systems, are impacting negatively
on service delivery in many of the least developed
countries. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
There is low community participation and limited
involvement of non-state actors in public health
Low Public Confidence in
Government Services
Poor quality leads to low uptake of government health
and nutrition services.
Under-emphasis on Prevention
In most developing countries, there is limited provision
for preventative health practices and health
promotion, although many communicable health
problems are preventable. Health education is often
poorly executed and accorded low priority; indeed, it
can get overlooked altogether in emergency
Concern Worldwide – Health Policy: Approved by Council March 2002
Health Policy

Poor people often rely on unregulated private
practitioners, traditional healers or self-treatment. The
danger of unregulated private practitioners is two fold.
Firstly, self-treatment can produce unwanted sideeffects if drugs are not administered properly and may
facilitate the development of multi-drug resistance,
e.g. TB drugs. Secondly, the lack of regulation may
give rise to unsound medical practices. In contrast,
over-regulation and patent development can hinder
the benefit of traditional healers and limit
opportunities for the production of more affordable
generic drugs. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
Major Health Problems
An estimated 1.3 billion people live in absolute
poverty and most of them regularly experience health
problems. Among the most serious are the following:
4.1 Non-communicable Diseases
These are diseases arising from genetic conditions or
lifestyle. As a direct result of increasing incidence of
smoking, changes in diets, changes in work and
exercise patterns, the incidence of cardiovascular and
non-infectious respiratory diseases, diabetes and
cancer is predicted to increase in developing countries
(WHO, 1997). Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.In particular, smoking-related deaths are
estimated to increase to around 10 million per annum
by the year 2030, perhaps exceeding those from
HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Undoubtedly, the
major health problems arising from lifestyle are those
associated with poor nutrition.
Ill-health Related to Malnutrition
Malnutrition is inadequate food intake, resulting in
wasting, stunting, lowered activity levels and frequent
illness. It lowers disease resistance. Different
population strata face different problems. Maternal
malnutrition has serious effects on the health of
children. Children of low birth weight, who in turn
receive poor nutrition, fail to reach their full genetic
potential for physical and mental development and
this leads to the effects of chronic malnutrition being
passed from generation to generation. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
It is now recognised that malnutrition in early life
lowers physiological efficiency throughout life and this
has serious implications for individuals trying to
compete to establish livelihoods.
Factors within households which result in differential
access to food based on sex and age, may result in
markedly differing nutritional status for children,
adolescents, adults and the elderly, and between men
and women.
Many agencies, especially in emergency situations,
have attempted to address malnutrition without fully
understanding the differing needs of different sections
of the community. There is a need to develop better
diagnostic standards and more appropriate
intervention approaches. Whereas there is broad
general consensus about individual needs for
nutrients, little attention has been given to the
management of community nutrition.
Reproductive Health
Each year, some 585,000 poor women die from
complications of pregnancy and childbirth (WHO,
2000). The majority of deliveries are conducted at
home, without trained assistance. Haemorrhage,
infection and neonatal tetanus can result from unsafe
delivery practices.
Accident and Trauma
War injury and land mine accidents are increasing risks
for civilian populations in countries during and postconflict.
The incidence of road traffic injuries and home and
industrial accidents is also increasing throughout the
world. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
Mental Health
There is an ongoing increase in mental health
problems arising from conflicts, family breakdown and
the effects of social alienation. Drug abuse is now a
serious problem in many of the least developed
Concern Worldwide – Health Policy: Approved by Council March 2002
Health Policy
Communicable Diseases
These are diseases transmitted by infection, either
directly or through a vector.
Malaria is the most common and well-known vectorborne disease, accounting for an estimated 1.1 million
deaths and 300-500 million cases per annum. Dengue
fever, bilharzia and kal-azar are endemic in many


HIV/AIDS is the biggest single killer in the developing
world, accounting for an estimated 3 million deaths in 2001. Some 14,000 people are newly infected every
day, with 95% of those infected living in the developing world (UNAIDS, 2001). TB is one of the
main opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
Diarrhoeal diseases, accounting for up to 4 million deaths annually (WHO, 1998), acute respiratory
infections (ARIs) and measles – all remain major causes of death and illness in the developing world.
Environmental Conditions
The environment has a major effect on people’s health. Current estimates put the number of people
without access to safe drinking water at 1.1 billion, or one-sixth of the world’s population. Two-fifths of the
worlds’ population, or 2.4 billion people, do not have access to safe excreta disposal (WHO, 2000).
Failure to control mosquitoes leads to more than 1 million deaths and between 300-500 million cases of
malaria annually, with a huge effect on economic output. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
It is estimated that in most cities, in the developing world, between one-third and two-thirds of people
have inadequate housing. It is recognised that the improvement of living conditions during the last
century was a major contributory factor to the improvement of health in the developed world.
WHO estimates that 1.9 million people die annually due to exposure to high concentrations of suspended
particulate matter in the indoor air environment. Most of this comes from the use of biomass fuels in cooking.
Children, in particular, have increased susceptibility to acute respiratory infections in such environments.
 Concern Worldwide’s
Health Policy
Concern recognises that poverty, inequality and marginalisation are both root causes and
consequences of poor health. Lasting improvements in health can therefore only be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach, tackling many of the root causes of poverty and developing stronger links in
particular with the sectors of food security and education. Concern is also aware of the need to
balance curative and preventative approaches to health, but for the most part Concern will focus on
improving health through Primary Health Care in emergency, rehabilitation and development contexts.
The main components of PHC, as defined by WHO at
Alma Ata in 1978, are:
• Food and Nutrition.
• Water and Sanitation.
• Maternal and Child Health.
• Care/Family Spacing. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
• Immunisation.
• First Aid/Disease Control.
• Traditional Medicine.
• Provision of Essential Drugs.
• Health Education.
• Mental Health.
• Oral Health.
Concern Worldwide – Health Policy: Approved by Council March 2002
Health Policy

 Core Principles
Six core principles guide Concern’s Health Policy:
• Affirmation of the right to health and adequate food for all.
• Planning activities on sound values and ethical principles (WHO, 1998).
• Development of programmes on Public Health Care and public health principles.
• Adhering to international standards and best practices in all interventions.
• Focusing on preventative measures and mitigation of disease epidemics.
• Promoting equity and empowerment for better health.
Aims and Objectives
In the long term, Concern will contribute to a
reduction in mortality and morbidity rates, and to
improved health security for all. This will be achieved
through support to the development of sustainable
health care delivery systems and supporting public
health interventions.
In the short term, Concern will act to:
• Support positive health practices and promote
healthy lifestyles. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
• Increase access by the poorest to primary health
care services which are responsive to their needs.
• Facilitate rapid response in the case of sudden
onset health emergencies.
• Promote greater representation of target groups in
decision-making for health, and greater
participation in service delivery.
• Develop Concern Worldwide’s capacity to
implement this policy.
Concern Worldwide’s policy objectives are to
contribute to achieving the International Development
Targets as they relate to health and WHO’s Global
Targets for 2020. In striving to achieve these
objectives, we aim to work in partnerships. Specifically,
Concern will measure performance in its programmes
against the following key indicators:
• Infant mortality rate.
• Mortality rate of children under five years of age.
• Maternal mortality rate. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
• Births attended by skilled health personnel.
• Contraceptive prevalence rate.
• HIV prevalence in 15-24 year old pregnant women.
• Prevalence of underweight children below five
years of age.
• People with access to safe water and sanitation.
In emergency, rehabilitation and development situations, Concern targets health work on the problems of the poorest people in our target countries.1 Within countries, priority areas are identified using indicators such as child and maternal mortality, life expectancy, nutritional status and HIV prevalence rates.
Those living in absolute poverty are our primary target
group. To achieve progress with this group, Concern
may have to work with the general population and
with those stakeholders who serve the health and
nutrition interests of the most vulnerable and who are
striving to achieve common health objectives.
Target groups will be identified in consideration of
local people’s own understanding of ‘health poverty’ and their definitions of who is ‘poorest’.
In acute emergency situations, if there is no time for
community participation, our interpretation of
immediate vulnerability and risk, local capacity to
cope, government request and other stakeholder responses will be used in targeting those who are most in need of health and nutritional assistance from Concern.
Concern Worldwide – Health Policy: Approved by Council March 2002
Health Policy

1 For details of country selection, see How Concern Targets Interventions for Poverty
Elimination, August 2000.
5.4 Types of Programme
Emergency relief, rehabilitation, development, and
development education and advocacy programmes
will be carried out as appropriate, in consideration of
the target populations’ health, environmental health
and nutrition priorities.
Target groups will be involved in programme planning,
setting priorities, making decisions, agreeing
objectives and identifying indicators of achievement,
as well as in participatory evaluations.
Concern will identify existing capacity and use locally
available resources from the start of each initiative.
Concern will aspire to deliver the best quality response
possible in any disaster situation, including the meeting of the Minimum Standards in Disaster
Response as developed by the Sphere Project.2
Concern will focus on:
Emergency Relief
Concern has developed preparedness for emergency
health and nutrition response, and will act either
directly or in collaboration with other key
stakeholders, including national actors and Alliance
2015 partners. Concern will respond to situations
caused by natural disasters and by conflicts and will
focus on:
• Response to epidemics of diseases, such as
measles, cholera and other diarrhoeal diseases,
meningitis, typhus, malaria and polio, until control
has become effective.
• The food security of affected populations.
• Environmental health issues.
• Mother and child health (MCH).
Concern will only undertake the role of service
provider until local systems are strengthened to meet health care needs.
Rehabilitation – Transition
Concern will continue to link relief and development
by supporting health transition programmes from
emergency health towards sustainable health.
Concern will: Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
• Support the rehabilitation of health infrastructure
where sustainability of services can be assured.
• Re-equip health facilities and staff with resources
and skills to re-establish quality services which can
be sustained. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
• Support the transition from short-term food supply
to longer term food security within a livelihoods
• Move towards the establishment of comprehensive
environmental health activities.
Development Programmes
Concern will base programme design on a full analysis
of all aspects of health needs and health systems.
Programme design will aim for sustainability and local
ownership, and therefore all health interventions
(including those for HIV/AIDS) will go through the
national system rather than in parallel structures.
Concern will focus on:
• The key elements of Primary Health Care.
• Capacity building and institutional strengthening
through partnerships.
• Assisting our beneficiaries to advocate for the
changes in national policy that they demand.
Development Education and Advocacy
Activities in these areas will focus on supporting
people’s prioritisation of their entitlement to basic
health rights, as outlined in Concern Worldwide’s
Strategic Plan 2002-2005.
Key issues which they are likely to choose from are:
• Health as a fundamental human right.
Concern Worldwide – Health Policy: Approved by Council March 2002
Health Policy

2 The Sphere Project (2000), Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in
Disaster Response is a collaborative effort designed to increase the effectiveness
of humanitarian assistance to make humanitarian agencies more accountable.
• Access to an adequate and balanced diet as a
fundamental right. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
• Equitable access to health services.
• Adequate and sustained human and financial
investment for health.
• Improvement of health service quality.
• Gender and reproductive health rights.
• Environmental health rights, including the right of
access to safe water.
• Rights of people living with HIV/AIDS, including
increased access to HIV anti-retrovirals and drugs
to treat opportunistic infections.
• Health-related issues, e.g. gender equality, hunger,
water, debt relief, banning land mines,
environmental protection, child rights and fair
Concern health staff will support and collaborate with
development education and advocacy personnel on all
issues of mutual interest in the promotion of health at
programme and head office level.
5.5 Intervention Areas
As an international NGO, Concern can intervene by
providing a partner agency with funds, by providing
health expertise or by a combination of these two. We
can find a partner either in the state sector or in the
private sector. While we recognise that the private
sector can provide excellent services to higher income
people, particularly in urban areas, our preference is to
provide funds and expertise to the state sector while
ensuring that such services are provided as a right to
people who need them. If Health Ministries request
our assistance, we will be particularly responsive in the
following areas:
General Health
Concern will endeavour to meet the priorities of target
populations and to support the quality delivery of
eight key elements of Primary Health Care. Concern
recognises that mental and oral health are important
elements of PHC, but because the people we work
with rarely prioritise mental or oral health, Concern
will not normally engage in these areas except in
emergency situations.
Emphasis will be put on:
• Information, education and communication (IEC)
to protect health.
• Communicable disease control, in particular,
HIV/AIDS prevention.
• Prevention and management of non-communicable
• Health system development.
Health education and promotion activities will aim to
enable individuals and communities to improve and
maintain their health status.
Improving the performance of health systems will
concentrate on four key functions, as outlined by the
WHO (2000):
• Service provision.
• Resource generation.
• Financing.
• Stewardship.
Concern believes that it is important to collaborate
with and support traditional health care providers and
systems in their positive health practices, particularly
where poorest populations have limited access to
government and private services, or where the
sustainability of formal health systems is
It is Concern’s preferred option not to be directly
operational, but to collaborate and work alongside
implementing partners, building their capacity for
service delivery. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
Within the context of the need to save life, Concern’s
work is based on the highest quality needs
assessments possible. This is to make efficient use of
existing local resources and knowledge, and to target
external resources to those most in need.
Concern Worldwide – Health Policy: Approved by Council March 2002
Health Policy

Emergency interventions range from general and
supplementary food distributions to centre-based
therapeutic care. Concern will seek to develop systems
of community-based therapeutic care so as to
maximise coverage of those suffering malnutrition.
In longer term developmental work, nutrition
surveillance will be an integral part of food security
monitoring. Nutritional interventions will be coordinated with longer term interventions to enhance
food production. This work will be undertaken within a
livelihoods framework.
A critically important part of all Concern’s nutrition
work will be to support government health services in
the training of mothers in the management of their
families’ nutrition.
Concern recognises the importance of breast feeding
in child nutrition and will take steps to promote it
within the constraints posed by maternal HIV/AIDS
Environmental Health
The intervention of partners will be supported in:
• Water supply.
• The disposal of excreta, liquid and solid waste.
• Vector control.
• Shelter and site planning.
• The promotion of hygiene.
• The control of pollution, with particular emphasis
on indoor air pollution.
Technologies chosen will be simple to use, low cost
and appropriate. Particular attention will be paid to
integrating the management of water supply,
sanitation and hygiene promotion.
All water supply programmes must be integrated into
wider level water resources management so as to
protect the environment.
Concern will look for community contributions in
relation to capital costs and complete cost recovery
concerning operating and maintenance costs. Such
mechanisms must be developed so as not to exclude
those who cannot afford to pay.
All water supply programmes will aim to ensure access
to water fit for human consumption in accordance
with standards such as WHO Guidelines on drinking
water quality or the Sphere Standards. The quantities
provided must relate to these standards and prevailing
climatic and cultural conditions. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.

5.6 Programme Approach
Programmes will be designed on progressive
principles, including standardisation, co-ordination,
community participation, capacity building,
integration, inter-sectoral collaboration, equity and
• Programme interventions will be based on relevant
research, participatory assessment and analysis,
locally agreed Ministry of Health standards and
appropriate international standards.
• Cost recovery programmes will only be supported
if exemption criteria for the most vulnerable can be
guaranteed (otherwise poorest people’s access to
care will be compromised).
• Concern retains a tolerant, broad-based definition
of sustainability in concordance with La Fond, who
defines it as ‘the capacity of a health system to
function.’ Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
Concern believes that long-term health security is only
achieved if people improve their knowledge and
capacity for better health.
Concern will focus on the following:
• Helping to build the capacity of government,
international, local agency and community-based
health service providers.
• Facilitating the empowerment of people towards
better health.
• Participation of stakeholders at all stages in the
project cycle.
• An inter-sectoral approach to health.
Concern Worldwide – Health Policy: Approved by Council March 2002
Health Policy
• A population-based approach where the needs of
all are considered, but primacy is given to the
• Gender equality.
• Behavioural change through health promotion and
Strengthening institutional capacity will focus on four
strategic areas:
• Management capacity.
• Technical support.
• Community approaches.
• Co-ordination and linkages.
Technical and management training of appropriate
health staff will be an important component in all PHC
All programmes will be designed with a view to
achieving sustainable benefits. In addition to the key
approaches listed above, this will be achieved by:
• Seeking approval from all appropriate levels of
• Agreeing Memoranda of Understanding with local
authorities and delivery agents with whom
Concern has a working relationship.
• Availing of and maximising the use of local
• Motivation of all partners for health action.
• Addressing problems of both service delivery and
low community demand for services.
• Managing exit strategies based on achievements,
which will be monitored throughout the
intervention by relevant stakeholders.
With respect to advocating and promoting health and
nutrition, Concern Worldwide endorses the following:
• UN 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
• UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
• WHO 1978 Alma Ata definitions for ‘Health’ and
‘Primary Health Care’. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
• WHO standards for public health.
• WHO’s recommended essential drug list and use of
generic medicines.
• Ottawa Charter on Principles for Health Promotion
and Behaviour Change (1986).
• WHO/UNICEF’s Code of Practice for Infant feeding
• Support of WHO Global Targets to 2020.
• Principles of the International Conference on Water
and the Environment (Dublin, 1992) and the Earth
Summit (Rio, 1992).
• Sphere’s Humanitarian Charter and Minimum
Standards in Disaster Response.
• IRC/RC Code of Conduct.
• People in Aid’s Code of Best Practice in the
Management and Support of Aid Personnel.
• Support for the 2015 International Development
6. Policy Monitoring
and Review Process
The implementation of this policy will be monitored
through a range of instruments such as programme,
country and sector evaluations.
Concern recognises that both internal and external
environments change. Such change may have a
bearing on the scope and content of this policy.
Consequently, it will be reviewed periodically. The
review process will be consultative and participatory
in nature. The responsibility for initiating the policy
review process rests with Concern’s Senior
Management and Council.
Concern Worldwide – Health Policy: Approved by Council March 2002
Health Policy

• Chalinder, A. (1994) Water and Sanitation in
Emergencies, ODI.
• Concern Worldwide (1994) Policy and Structure of
• Concern Worldwide (1997) Strategic Plan 1997-
2002: Towards increasing Effectiveness with the
• Concern Worldwide (1999) Annual Report and
• Dalzell, H. (2000) Criteria for Intervention.
• Green, A. (1992) An Introduction to Health
Planning in Developing Countries.
• La Fond, A. (1995) Sustaining Primary Health Care.
• Laga et al (1994) ‘Condom promotion, sexually
transmitted diseases treatment and declining
incidence of HIV-1 infection in female Zairian sex
workers’, The Lancet, Vol. 334, July 23 1994.
• Sphere Project (2000) Humanitarian Charter and
Minimum Standards in Disaster Response.
• Tabibzadeh, I. and Liisberg, E. (1997) ‘Response of
health systems to urbanization in developing
countries’, World Health Report, Vol. 18, No. 3/4,
pp. 287-93.
• UNDP (1999) Human Development Report.
• United Nations (1948) Universal Declaration of
Human Rights.
• Walt, G. (1994) Health Policy: An Introduction to
Process and Power.
• WHO (1978) Report of the International
Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma Ata.
• WHO (1981) Global Strategy for Health for All by
the year 2000, ‘Health for All’ series, No. 3.
• WHO (1995) The World Health Report – Bridging
the Gaps.
• WHO (1995) Renewing the Health for All Strategy:
Elaboration of a policy for equity, solidarity and
health, Consultation document.
• WHO (1996) The World Health Report – Fighting
disease, Fostering development.
• WHO (1997) Improving Child Health – IMCI: The
integrated approach.
• WHO (1997) The World Health Report –
Conquering suffering, Enriching humanity.
• WHO (1998) The World Health Report – A Vision
for All. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.
• WHO (1998) Health for All in the 21st century.
• World Bank (1993) World Development Report –
Investing in Health.
• World Bank (1997) Health, Nutrition and
Concern Worldwide – Health Policy: Approved. Health Care Policy Essay Assignment.

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