Coding Categorizing Thematizing Data Essay.

Coding Categorizing Thematizing Data Essay.

What is a code in qualitative data analysis?

A code in qualitative inquiry is most often a word or short phrase that symbolically assigns a summative, salient, essence-capturing, and/or evocative attribute for a portion of language-based or visual data.

Data: interview transcripts, participant observation field notes, journals, documents, drawing, artifacts, photographs, video, Internet sites, email correspondence, literature, and so on.Coding Categorizing Thematizing Data Essay.

Coding is just one way of analyzing qualitative data. It is not the only way.

You, as researcher, determine whether coding is appropriate for your particular research project.

Coding, when used, is considered to be a fundamental, first step to analysis.

First Cycle Coding

Coding does NOT refer to the interpretation of symbols.

Rather, a code is a researcher-generated construct that symbolizes and thus attributes interpreted meaning to each individual datum for later purposes of:

Pattern detection


Theory building

Just as a title represents and captures a book or film, so does a code represent and capture a datum’s primary content and essence.Coding Categorizing Thematizing Data Essay.

Coding Examples

I notice that the great majority of homes have chain link fences in front of them. There are many dogs, mostly German Shepherds, with signs of fences that say, “Beware of the Dog.” SECURITY DANGER FEAR
He cares about me. He has never told me but he does. He’s always been there for me, even when my parents were not. He’s one of the few things that I hold as a constant I my life. So it’s nice. I really feel comfortable around him. SENSE OF SELF WORTH, FOOLING HERSELF, SEEING WORLD THROUGH ROSE COLORED GLASSES STABILITY COMFORTABLE

Coding for Patterns

You may find that several to many of the same codes will be used repeatedly throughout. There are repetitive patterns of action and consistencies in human affairs.


Your goal is to find any repetitive patterns of action and consistencies as documented in the data.

Mrs. Jackson rises from her desk and announces, “OK, you guys, let’s get lined up for lunch. Row One.” Five children seated in the first row of desks rise and walk to the classroom door. Some of the seated children talk to each other. Mrs. Jackson looks at them and says, “No talking, save it for the cafeteria. Row Two.” LINING UP FOR LUNCH MANAGING BEHAVIOR LINING UP FOR LUNCH

Coding Filters

Coding requires an analytic lens. How you perceive and interpret what is happening in the data depends on what type of filter covers the lens you are using. You might consider creating a code based on an interviewee’s own words:

There’s just no place in this country for illegal immigrants. Round them up and send those criminals back to where they came from. “NO PLACE” IMMIGRATION ISSUES ZENOPHOBIA

Coding to Categorizing



Teacher Skills



Style/Personal Expression

Technical Skills

Example (from Saldana)

From Codes to Categories to Theory

Some categories may contain clusters of coded data that merit further refinement into subcategories. When the major categories are compared with each other and consolidated in various ways, the researcher begins to transcend the “reality” of the data and progress toward the thematic, conceptual, and theoretical.

Codifying usually follows a sort of concept map. It is usually messy. Sometimes intuitive. Never a clear answer.

Categorizing is how we get “up” from the diversity of data to the shapes of data, the sorts of things represented.Coding Categorizing Thematizing Data Essay.

Concepts are how we get up to more general, higher-level, and more abstract “construct.”

The researcher’s ability to show HOW these themes and concepts systematically interrelate lead toward the development of theory.

Difference Between Codes & Themes

A code is not something that can stand alone as a concept or theme.

A theme is an outcome of coding, categorization, and/or analytic reflection.

1. Name 3 things that you know about Rohingyas living in Saudi Arabia today.

· It’s hard to know a Rohingya person who lives in Saudi Arabia for a long time from a Bengali who came from Bangladesh to just work. You will be able to distinguish when they start talking.

· They created a new Hejazi Arabic dialect with different grammar.

· Although they’ve been here (in Saudi Arabia) for more than fifty years, they still didn’t learn the language.Coding Categorizing Thematizing Data Essay.

· Most of Rohingya teach our children the recitation of the Holy Qur’an in evening schools despite of the Language difficulties.

· Rohingyas provide many services to our community like cheap labor.

· Rohingyas contributed to lower some products’ prices in our country like fish and furniture.

· Many Rohingyas accept the living on charities and refuse to work.

· Rohingyas involve in too many illegal activities like selling drugs and prostitution.

· Rohingyas are responsible for the delay of developing the City of Mecca because they are taking a huge area close to the center of the city.

· Rohingyas involvement of helping illegal immigrants who came for pilgrimage and never went back to their countries. They give them shelter and force them to work illegally.

· Because Rohingyas take any job offer with any salary, they are responsible for the high unemployment rates in Hejaz.

· Rohingyas are sending a bad picture of Saudis to the world.

· Rohingyas are working on low wage jobs.

· Rohingyas are responsible for the spread of diseases to our people like Aids and Covid-19.

· Rohingyas’ plan is to take over the holy city by saying “Mecca is a city that belong to Muslims not to Saudis”. And they’re responsible for creating and sharing of the Hashtag on Twitter #مكةـحقنا which means #Our_Makkah.Coding Categorizing Thematizing Data Essay.

· Rohingyas are dividing our nation.

2. What has been the most positive outcome of having a Rohingya as your friend?

· Rohingyas are loyal to their friends.

· Bringing a different culture to the group.

· Rohingyas have deep connection with their people they provide every need their friends need with phone calls.

· Rohingyas are religious people, you can learn from them about God.

· Our Rohingya friend is the cook of the group, they cook very good.

· It is a good thing to have a Rohingya friend, they have too many skills that are beneficial.

· My Rohingya friend taught me about Rohingya crisis in Myanmar.

3. How would you rate Rohingyas’ quality of life in Saudi Arabia today? 1 is the best life possible and 4 being the worst life possible.

1: BEST 2: VERY GOOD 3: GOOD 4: WORST 147 responses.

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4. If you were an influential or powerful government official, what is the one best action you could take to improve Rohingyas’ quality of life?

· I would build better homes for them in a different location and invest on their slums by developing the area.

· I would treat them as citizens.

· I would make the universities for free for all Rohingyas.

· I would include them in the social security, specially elders.

· I would ask people to choose between deporting them or giving them the citizenship as this would change their standard of living.

· I would deport them to Myanmar today.

· I would send them back from where they came, as their problem is not our responsibility.

· I would ask people to choose between deporting them or giving them the citizenship as this would change their standard of living.Coding Categorizing Thematizing Data Essay.

· They don’t belong here; I would just send them back to their country.

· I would invest on their children rather than looking at the elder; I educate them so they would grow up differently.

· I would double the police forces on their slums.

5. What could be the best possible future for Rohingyas in Saudi Arabia?

· If the government gave them the citizenship and treated them as Saudis, their children will be as ours and they will part of the society.

· Rohingyas will provide good labor in the Saudi Arabian market.

· If Rohingyas integrated into the society they would be able to leave their slums safely without the fear of getting deporting, therefore, they would have a better life, better education, less diseases.

· If Rohingyas given their rights like citizenship, they would help to positively contribute to the society.

· If the government of Saudi Arabia give them the citizenship Rohingyas would be more creative and successful as fear of deporting all the time holding them back from doing so.

· Rohingyas are very active and creative, if the government treated them as citizens, they would help building the country.

· There will be no future for them here, as they don’t belong here.

6. What might be some of the best outcomes for Saudi Arabia if the country provided help? Citizenship? Assistance? Medical help? Education? Training? Good jobs?

· Giving Rohingyas citizenship would positively change their lives, hence they would positively contribute back to the society.

· Giving Rohingyas citizenship allows their children to attend best schools and universities hence, better jobs better lives hence, this would positively reflect to the society.

· If the government lift ban on universities tuitions for Rohingyas, this would allow Rohingyas to get better jobs, hence a positive change in their standard of living and this would make Rohingyas help the society to grow.

· If the government granted a free healthcare for Rohingyas this would result in lower diseases in their slums, hence a healthy society.Coding Categorizing Thematizing Data Essay.

· Rohingyas need to be treated as citizens as this would result in a better life for them, and for the society.

· If the Rohingyas were treated as Saudis without the fear of being deported, they would moveout from living in slums and the government would use their slums area to develop the city.

· If the Rohingyas were treated as citizens, the use of drugs would decrease, therefore the drugs would decrease in the city.

· If the government give Rohingyas good jobs they wouldn’t work in illegal jobs to support their families and therefore the government would find it easy to fight the illegal activities.

· If Rohingyas were included in government subsidies like Saudis, the illegal activities and the crimes would decrease to low rates.

7. What is the best way for the government of Saudi Arabia to help Rohingya immigrants now?

· Giving them the citizenship.

· Treating them in all aspects as Saudi citizens.

· The government of Saudi Arabia should build a temporary refugee camps outside the city of Mecca and uses their slums to build projects for pilgrims as their slums very close to the holy mosque.

· The government of Saudi Arabia should include the elder of Rohingyas in the Social benefits and other government subsidies.

· The government of Saudi Arabia should put a plan to develop Rohingyas slums, as they don’t have access to services like water and electricity.

· A hospital should be built for Rohingyas without any costs.

· Free schools should be built in walking distance from where the Rohingyas live.

· All Rohingyas in immigration prisons should be released immediately and Rohingyas who got caught in illegal activates should be given another chance.


· The government of Saudi Arabia should arrange with the governate of Myanmar to deport all Rohingyas to Arakan, Myanmar.

8. What might be the best outcome 5 years from now if the Saudi government were to help Rohingyas in Saudi Arabia. Describe your image of this best outcome.

· Rohingyas would be part of the society, they help to build our nation.

· Rohingyas would have better health, better jobs and better homes.

· The crime rate would be lower among Rohingyas.

· Rohingyas younger generation would have the ability to attend best schools and colleges in the country, therefore better education for Rohingyas.

· The city of Meccah would have the opportunity to develop the city using Rohingyas slums as it is a huge obstacle for the city.

· The number of illegal activities would be lower in the city of Mecca after the government gives the Rohingyas citizenship and the ability to find legal jobs.

· The humanitarian crisis of the Rohingyas in Saudi Arabia (Al-Hejaz) would diminish through time after the immerge of Rohingyas into the society.

· The society would benefit from solving the Rohingyas crisis in Al-Hejaz as no longer will be infectious diseases coming from Rohingyas’ slums.

· Rohingya kids would have the opportunity to be successful as they would have better education.

· Drugs are no longer spread in the city as Rohingyas would have better ways to make good living rather than selling drugs.Coding Categorizing Thematizing Data Essay.

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