Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

This report focuses on understanding the problems being faced by the Information System (IS) department of Hures as well as other Organisations dealing with human resource and management. Such organizations, private or public, continuously collect and process data (information) using technologies available at an increased rate and store the information in computerized systems.

To maintain such information systems becomes difficult and extremely complex, especially as scalability-issues arise. Such problems identified are required to be sorted and find out the solutions.Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

Therefore from the scenario given, the measures were taken into considerations to minimize problems in communication mechanism. The client server architecture was established in the beginning to improve productivity, efficiency and information handling. Nevertheless, the Hures Information System department experienced difficulties as the stored information grew leading to the need of establishing peer to peer architecture, intranets and extranets for security purposes.




We are now in modern age of technology. Like old time we do not need to do our daily things with pen and paper now. Modern technology gives us the power to saves the time and work become more easy without any hassle .Now multinational companies using computer for their all task. So it’s become more essential for everybody for their daily needs and work. Everybody now depending on computer so it’s really important to build up relation between computers to computers and then we also need a server means powerful computer with high requirement .Server serve Client means the user .If server cannot control the client request then it’s become more complicated for every single users for that regain system can be crash .and technology update time by time so the system needs to be updated. If any company crate a system that can serve 100 employee but they have like 300 employee it’s not possible to cover everyone needs also its become pain for everyone to work with that system. So we need better system design means Better client server architecture. With the right level of attention to client/ server systems and application design. But poor design can ruin this utopian vision; making upgrades every bit as painful, time-consuming, and costly as installing a new mainframe.Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

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The significant downside to the client-server model is that since every one of the assets are situated on one server, this makes a single point of failure which is SPF. SPF implies that if anything ought to happen to the server ,for example, a seared PC chip, a smashed hard commute that is not recoverable, or a noteworthy force blackout that demolishes the motherboard. A client-server network is intended for end-clients called clients to get to assets, (for example, records, tunes, feature accumulations or some other administration) from a focal PC called a server.

A server’s sole reason for existing is to do what its name infers – serve its customers! A customer server system is a focal PC, otherwise called a server, which has information and different types of assets. Customers, for example, portable PCs and desktop PCs contact the server and solicitation to utilize information or impart its different assets to it.

The client uses the system as an approach to associate with and address the server. Client addresses the server to take his or her request, the customer uses the system to send and get correspondences about its request, or solicitation. The server will take the solicitation and will verify that the solicitation is substantial. On the off chance that everything looks at alright, then the server will bring the solicitation and serve the customer.

Client-server model can be utilized by projects inside of a solitary PC, it is a more vital idea for systems administration. For this situation, the customer builds up an association with the server over a neighbourhood (LAN) or wide-zone system (WAN, for example, the Internet). Once the server has satisfied the customer’s demand, the association is ended.Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

Advantages of Client-server Network
Advantages of using such network is security to access such network user need to fulfil some credentials like username and password and if the user is not authenticated it prevent the user to access network.

Provide centralized network user is not dependent to other systems to access the files because file is already stored on the centralized server and data security is also controlled through the server.

Network is flexible enough that any new technology can be easily integrated into the systems.

Environment is interoperable means all component work together either server, network or client. Intranet capability, Internet monitoring.

Disadvantages of Client-server Network
This network can cause congestion. To setup such network is higher than anticipated cost. Lack of scalability in terms of network operating system are not scalable. Dependability increase especially when the network goes down.

Colin White writes that the “benefit of client/server computing is the availability of

Hardware servers that scale from a small uni-processor machine to a massively parallel

Machine containing hundreds, possibly thousands of processors. Corporations can now

match the computing power of the server to the job at hand. If a server runs out of

capacity, the old server can simply be replaced by a larger one. This change can be

made without affecting existing client workstation users or the tools they employ. This

provides not only scalability, but also flexibility in handling hardware growth as compared

with central mainframes where an upgrade is a major undertaking that is both costly and

time consuming.”Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

(Colin White, “Supporting High-Performance DSS Applications,” InfoDB 8(2) (1994), 27. )

Client-server architecture
A web page (HTML page) that contains the same information for all users. Although it may be periodically updated from time to time, it does not change with each user retrieval.

A program / script file executed on the web server in response to a user request. A CGI script is usually executed to process the data sent when a form filled in by a user is sent back to the web server.

Server side scripting means that all of the code is executed on the server before the data is passed to the user’s browser. In the case of PHP this means that no PHP code ever reaches the user, it is instead executed and only the information it outputs is sent to the web browser

PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.PHP pages typically have .phtml,php or .php3 file name extensions. An open source technology.

ASP: Active Server Pages .A Microsoft technology. Extension .asp.

JSP: Java Server Pages .jsp pages contain Java code.

SSI: Server Side Includes. Involves the embedding of small code snippets inside the HTML page. An SSI page typically has .shtml as its file extension.

With this technology now it’s become really easy to create large website and maintain it easily.

Introduction to 2-Tier Architecture
Two-tier client/server architectures have 2 essential components

A Client PC and
A Database Server
Tier Considerations: Client program accesses database directly. Requires to code change to port to a different database. Potential bottleneck for data requests .High volume of traffic due to data shipping. Client program executes application logic. Limited by processing capability of client workstation (memory, CPU) .Requires application code to be distributed to each client workstation. (Less than 50 users).Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

Introduction to 3-Tier Architecture
3-Tier client-server architectures have 3 essential components:

A Client PC
An Application Server
A Database Server
3-Tier Architecture Considerations:

Client program contains presentation logic only
Less resources needed for client workstation
No client modification if database location changes
Less code to distribute to client workstations
One server handles many client requests
More resources available for server program
Reduces data traffic on the network
Comparing both types of architecture
“Tier 2 architecture is therefore a client-server architecture where the server is versatile means it is capable of directly responding to all of the client’s resource requests. In tier 3 architecture however, the server-level applications are remote from one another, i.e. each server is specialized with a certain task eg:- web server/database server. Tier 3 architecture provides: “Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

Increased security at each level.
Increased performance.
Benefits of the Client/Server Model
Cost savings.
Manage workflow.
Provide multi-tier service
Disadvantages of the client/server model
Client/Server architecture also has the following drawbacks:

increased cost: due to the technical complexity of the server
a weak link: the server is the only weak link in the client/server network, given that the entire network is built around it! Fortunately, the server is highly fault tolerant (primarily thanks to the RAID system) (
Problem Faced by Hures Company and its solution:-
According to the problems faced by Hures, its Primarily, it’s not that system they made for future use .it did not have that capability to the handle the future demands or needs of the company. the developer of the system did not focused on the future strength of the system or the adjustment of the system, different changes on both external and internal environment which change the over flow of information in the company. In order to come up with the current problem of Hures’ system, “Client-Queue-Client can be applied as alternative architecture. This uses a passive queue which allows the client instances to communicate directly with each other, which will refine their request from the services. This is helpful for Hures because it can help to support and prevent any problems that are related with the server” (Exforsys Inc n.d.).. “Client queue is used in order to take track of the number of client connections. Therefore, the server can trace which resources the client has obtained, and the server can release the resources after the client connection breaks down” (Chan & Leong 2003).Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

“Intranet is a network that is built by using the same tools and protocols that are used by the global Internet but applied instead to the internal network of an organization. It can be describe like a closed-circuit television system, which can be viewed only by those people within the organization that owns the system” (Lowe 2009).

“Intranet site is a web site that is viewable only to those within the network of an organization. Even though based on the same protocols as the World Wide Web, an intranet is protected from the outside world either by not being connected to the outside or through a series of hardware and software obstacles known as a firewall”l (Matthews & Matthews 2003, p. 64).

The development of an intranet web site using secure log cons to access the information is not a new idea. Many corporate locations use a secure internal site for vital information to be used by employees of the corporation and management only. The design of such a site could be simple using HTML, Java and CSS and may provide a variety of links to various databases stored within the network server(s). Security features can be enhanced by requiring the changing of passwords on individual users every thirty (30) days. Obviously, one counter position of establishing an internal web site would be that of cost and implementation. Depending upon the OS of the server, it would be necessary to create the web site and establish users with passwords to access the site. This would take some time to develop and the amount of individuals accessing the site would have to be considered in the overall budget required for implementation.Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper





Threats to the security of any open network system will always exist. Proper network monitoring on a continuous level severely reduces the risk of infiltration from outside sources. Network security should be the most important aspect of any company/corporation within the network structure. Reducing allowable events such as user abilities to plug in devices to their individual workstations, remote monitoring using camera feeds in various places within the office. Again, the cost of this will be substantial however, to maintain the integrity of the network should be of the highest priority and can reduce the severity of lost revenue. Disadvantages in intranet that it’s really expensive to maintain and setup. Need high qualified people or team to maintain its resources. Peer-to-peer and client-server architecture have different advantages and pros. It enables to take advantage of the wireless and Internet technology, at the same time, take advantage of the privacy and security which can be offered by client/server system. Intranet and internet both are famous worldwide so i will develop daily basis and needs to upgrade time wise.

Do you think the problems faced by Hures are unique? Why or why not?

The difficulty faced by Hures IS department is not peculiar to them rather the underlying technology. In a ‘distributed environment they were working on, the client server technology had problems when it comes to the extension or scaling servers to accommodate additional loads that were initially not envisaged. Client-server architecture consists of series of clients connected to a common server mounted at some remote or nearby location. Hence when there are load increments in the

distributed environment, it usually tends to cause problems that make the architecture difficult to scale accordingly. Moreover, for all users on the network the rate of data transfer might go down, and sometimes a powerful and expensive computer needs to be installed and integrated into the system in an attempt to improve scalability and availability of the server.

Nevertheless, for every application under heavy loading, numerous computers may be needed. It is customary to utilise one computer to each server application under medium loading, so as to prevent the extent of damage, for example in the occasion of system failure or violation of privacy and security. Client and servers when connected together to form a network that would facilitate better communication is referred to as a client server architecture. A client is an application or system that accesses a (remote) service on another computer system known as a server by way of a network. Hence servers by their operation receive a message from client and work on them and then return the responses to the client. For instance, file server, web server, mail server and web browser are servers and client respectively (Harkey et aL, 1999).Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

Suggest alternative architectures that could be used to overcome the problems faced by Hures’ current Client/Server technology.

Increasingly need of users accessing to network resources (i.e. information) virtually for anything held on a database through a common interface. The network supports between the user and that information. Therefore, distributed system is one of the most ideal for location of resources or database transparency.

In general, a server and client systems consist of two major parts which are software and related hardware. On a controlled and shared ground to the clients, servers host resources and make them available. This allows access to server content to be controlled in a much better and secured manner. Basically, client/server architecture is a two tier technology which means that it has two nodes namely a client and a server. In order to improve communication between the client and the server, a third node or interface called a middleware is introduced between the client and the server. This is technically a better design as the middleware which is a form of software between the client and the server processes data for clients such as web browsers e.g. internet explorer, mozilla firefox and safari which are all web client. Middleware store data for user applications enabling a comparatively better design that facilitate server scalability as the processing of requests has been separated by balancing the load on different servers (Harkey, et al, 1999).

The role of Middleware in a Client-Server Architecture is illustrated in the figure below:

Introducing the middleware results in the design of a three-tier architecture which later can be extended to an n-tier. The n-tier architecture has the disadvantages of impacting or increasing traffic congestion and reducing the design robustness. N-tier architecture becomes more difficult to run and test software than the two-tier architecture due to device congestion resulting in communication difficulties. The increased load in n-tier architecture could lead to overloading of the network. Apart from the mentioned disadvantages n-tier architecture has number of advantages which include: better security control, increased flexibility, user friendly, easy upgradeability and scalability compared to the two tier architecture (Harkey, et al, 1999)

The implementation of an n-tier distributed computing architecture will be a solution to overcome problems faced by Hures. N-tier architecture has the potential to provide better, more timely information across the enterprise at a lower cost than the current combination of PC LAN, two-tier client/server, or mainframe applications that have been developed in most organizations. For n-tier architecture to be effective, three key components need to be present:Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

Empowerment of the developer to integrate a distributed computing architecture within existing databases, tools, and components.
Certainty of efficient network traffic.
Mechanisms to handle load balancing to distribute the work across many servers.
The n-tier client/server architecture provides an environment which supports all the benefits of both the one-tier approach and the two-tier approach, and also supports the goals of a flexible architecture.

The three tiers refer to the three logical component parts of an application, not to the number of machines used by the application. An n-tier application model splits an application into its three logical component types-presentation logic, business logic, and data access logic, where there may be any number of each of the component types within an application. The application components communicate with each other using an abstract interface, which hides the underlying function performed by the component. This infrastructure provides location, security, and communication services for the application components.

The n-tier client/server architecture provides an environment which supports all the benefits of both the one-tier approach and the two-tier approach, and also supports the goals of a flexible architecture.

The technology should be able to handle future growth. Hures should carry out n-tier client/server technology to solve their partitioning problems. N-tier client/server architecture is an evolution of the traditional 2-tier and 3-tier models, and is suitable for large business applications where many users share common data and operations on them.Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

Peer to Peer

The structure of peer to peer network architectures, they do not have a fixed server responsible for blocking and routing request to and from nodes unlike client server architecture. Peer-to-peer networks are simple and easy to implement. However they fail to render the same performance under heavy loads. Distributed computing, instant messaging and affinity communities are all examples of peer to peer network architecture (Deal, 2005).

One of the suggestions proposed by Hures’ IS department is the use of intra net web technology. Examine the pros and cons of such an idea.

Intranet can be described as a private version of the internet or network connectivity. It is based on TCPIIP protocols configured for a particular organization system, usually a corporation, accessible only by the organization’s members, employees, or others with permission to do so. An intranet website looks and acts just like any other Web sites, but the firewall surrounding an intranet fends off unauthorized access. Like the Internet, intranets are used to share information over a network (Douglas, 2005). Intranet is privately owned computer network that utilizes Internet protocols and network connectivity. It is safe and secure in sharing part of organizational operations such as marketing, administrative information or other matters concerned with the organization and its employees. The techniques, concepts and technologies associated with the internet such as clients and servers running on the Internet protocol suite are employed in building an intranet. HTTP, FTP, e-mail and other Internet protocols are also applied.

Usually intranets are restricted to employees of the particular firm, while extranets tend to have wider scope so that they can be accessed by customers, suppliers or other authorized agents. On the other hand, intranets like other technologies have their own merits and demerits. Below are some of the advantages and disadvantages of this technology (Stallings and Slyke, 1998).Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

The pros and cons (advantages and disadvantages respectively) for Hure’s using intranet web Technology were accounted for as follows:


Intranet serves as an effective communication tool within the organization, both vertically and horizontally thereby promoting a common corporate culture where every user is accessing the same information available on a common platform.
Intranet enables proper time management, since organizations are capable to make adequate information available to employees on the intranet. This way, employees are able to connect to relevant information within the effective time.
Increases the productivity levels of workforce by allowing them to locate and view information faster. It also enables them to use applications relevant to the task at hand. Also, web browsers such as Internet Explorer or Firefox help users to readily access data from any database the
organization makes available, subject to security provisions within the company’s workstations thereby improving services to users.
Intranets have cross-platform capability which enables it to adequately support different types of web browsers irrespective of their backbone be it Java, Mac or UNIX. This ability enhances collaboration since every authorized user is capable of viewing information on the site thereby
promoting teamwork.
Provide a comparatively cost-effective means for network users to access information or data through a web-browser instead of preparing physical documents like manuals, internal phone list or even ledges and requisition forms.
Publishing on the web permits critical corporate knowledge such as company policies, business standards, training manuals etc to be secured and easily accessed throughout the company using hypermedia and other web technologies.
It facilitates the business operations and management. Increasingly they are being used as a platform for developing and deploying applications that support business operations and decision making across the whole enterprise. (Goldberg, 1996)
Do you think the popularity of intranets and the Internet pose threats to traditional Client/Server systems?

Intranet and Internet become popular to some extent because they pose some threats to the traditional Client/server systems.Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

It is true that Internet and intranet are both web technologies. A few years ago, the typical office environment consisted of PCs were connected to a network, with servers providing file and print services. Remote access was awkward, and profitability was achieved by use of laptop computers. Terminals attached to mainframes were prevalent at many companies as well with even fewer remote access and portability options. (Silberschtuz, 2004)

Currently the secure intranets are the fastest-growing segment of the Internet comparatively much less expensive to build and manage compared to the private networks. Usually private networks are based on proprietary protocols with mostly client server architecture. An extranet creates a secure tunnel between two companies over the public Internet. It is also used to connect remote employees to corporate network by the use of Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).

Also intranets are increasingly being used for tools and applications delivery, which facilitate group work and teleconferencing to an enhanced collaboration within the organizations. In order to increase productivity of organizations, sophisticated corporate directories, sales and CRM tools and project management, are all taking advantage of intranet technology (Robert, et al, 1999).

The problems faced by Hures like other organization including private and public,which are continuosly collecting and storing data in accelerated rate. The above answers on respective four questions discussed on as follows: If the problems experienced by Hures since 1985 up to now are unique or not, comparing to other organizations, such problems experienced were due to growth of business demands in information systems (IS). For example, Hures was forced to downsize the IS from mainframe to Client/Server network resulted in higher efficiency and profit. Nevertheless the problems arise on the server scaling due to loading capacity, forced the company to incur much cost on implementation of distributed environment with more powerful desktop machines. These problems are not unique because all organizations demand changes in IS while they grow up in business.

Secondly, the alternative architectures have been discussed about solving the problems of Heures as well as other organizations in information systems. Therefore, distributed system has been suggested which is the most ideal for location of resources or database transparency in networking environment.Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

Thirdly, the intranet web technology as the special network for special organization suggested by Hures’ IS department, was discussed on it’s pros and cons which can be relied on for proper construction of networks in any organization.

Finally, we have seen that the popularity of intranets and the Internet pose threats to traditional Client/Server systems since the most fastest growing firms with sophisticated systems have taken advantages of Intranet and Internet technologies to facilitate the efficiency in networking and higher production. Client/Server Systems Assignment Paper

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