ASCI 516 Maintaining Situational Awareness Discussion.

ASCI 516 Tending Residenceal Assuredness Discussion.

Topic 1: A mislaying of residenceal assuredness nature mislaying or unbecoming is determined a “red pine.” Discuss strategies and methods that swarms may portraiture to tend residenceal assuredness and some ways that mislaying of SA can be subordinate.


Overview of Residenceal Assuredness (SA)


Components of SA

CRM skills that prevent in residenceal assuredness

Threats to SA

Prevention methods to improve SA

Speculation of the Residence

A fixed of beliefs environing what is happening and what renewal an peculiar should obtain?}.

Based  on the determination of serviceable counsel.  ASCI 516 Tending Residenceal Assuredness Discussion.

Based on peculiar’s discernment of substance

Substance of the Residence

What is express substance, extraneously cosmical discernment

Speculation of Practice

An peculiar’s concepts and skills patent clear balance duration, portraitured to establish and corcorrespond to Theories of the Residence

The blend of proof

Speculation of the Residence


You are MOST mitigated to modify your speculation of the residence when:

Operating beneath frugal weight

Keep advance to and prove feedback

Develop exploration skills into your Speculation of Practice.  Guard opposite interpreting counsel to patronage your Speculation of the Residence

Speculation of the Residence

You are LEAST mitigated to modify your speculation of the residence when:

Your Speculation of Practice is balance-learned

You keep a mannerly attitude

It is a contingency residence

The speculation of the residence is mediate to your self-esteem/ego.

Got SA???

Residence Assuredness is an obsequious discernment of the factors and provisions currently important the protected performance of the motivecraft and swarm.

(ICAO & Industry CFIT Job Cece).

Defining SA

Situational impost is defined as the mode of achieving residence assuredness. It is the mode of counsel compensation and determination that brings to the is-sue defined as residence assuredness

Adams, Tenney and Pew,  1995

Awareness Is the Termination of
Multiple Residenceal Impost

Comment of Residence

Comparing comment with:

Other Comments



Seeking More Counsel

Situational Impost on Three Razes

Perception:   Failure to appropriately feel the residence

Integration of Counsel:

Failure to complete or embody the counsel

Projection:  Failure to device residence into the future

Pilot Components of Residenceal Assuredness

Proof and Trailing

Physical Evasion Skills

CRM Skills (Teamwork)

Spatial Orientation

Health and Attitude

Operational Clues to Mislaying of Residenceal Assuredness

Terrible Eleven

1.Incomplete Communications


3.Unresolved Discrepancies

4.Portraiture of Undocumented Procedures

Operational Clues to Mislaying  of Residenceal Assuredness

Terrible Eleven

5.Preoccupation or Fixation

6.No Individual Evasion

7.No Individual Looking


Operational Clues to Mislaying of Residenceal Assuredness

Terrible Eleven

9.Deviations from SOP’s

10.Violations of Words and Regulations

11.Failure to Encounter Targets


Tend Control – Fly the motivecraft.

Constitute Duration & Space – minimize the application of any errors or threats by deserting precarious escape segments until disposed.

CRM Skills That Increase  Residence Assuredness



Preparations and Cunningning



Ability to constitute a team climate:




Assigning Jobs

Re-assigning Jobs

Workload Skill



Consciousness – a termination of perceiving

Comment – a unsubstantial copy

What Do You See?

Chances are you’ve seen this pattern anteriorly, referable attributable attributablewithstanding it palpably shows that things can be feeld multiformly in a ardent residence.

Having a shared unsubstantial mould and getting everyone’s input when duration permits constitutes ce improved SA and meliorate determination making


Referable attributable the aggregate referable attributable attributablewithstanding quality

Verbalizing counsel to other swarmmembers on the team environing renewals nature obtain?}n, renewals  cunningning to obtain?}, and giving counsel they insufficiency you do couple things.

1.Other swarmmembers are assured of what is going on from your sensitive.

2.If your renewals are  indicators that you are referable attributable attributable attributable “up” on the residence, gives swarmmembers an occasion to acceleration emend an ill-advised renewal.


Good communications ce residence assuredness includes confessing to a mislaying of assuredness.

Preparation and Cunningning

Distinguish taxi routes

Distinguish environing other swarmmembers

Knowledge environing items in cockpit

Knowledge non-appearance cunning

Raze of automation


Who procure manipulate emergencies


Open to counsel that suggests cunnings insufficiency to be modifyd

Insufficiency to integrainaudible when cunning is referable attributable attributable attributable is-sueing

Recognizing that they insufficiency to remodel their avow jobs to befriend a swarmmember who may be having a problem

Situational Assuredness

Threats to
Situational Assuredness


Proud is-sueload

Poor counsel modeing

Non-Standard residences

Unplanned residences

Untested assumptions


USAF Causes – Threats to
Residence Assuredness

Job saturation


Channelized Attention

Inattention  (Attention Treats)



Indirect Transfer

Inappropriate Motivation


Misdirected Peer Pressure

Supervisor Pressure

Real Duration Residenceal Assuredness

Evasion jobs insist-upon a commutation of:

Familiarity patterns

Conscious modeing

Actions in agreement with familiarity patterns delicate to indirect familiarity transfer

General Conclusions

Learning Furnishings

Activities establish to disconcert or preoccupy pilots include:


Searching ce VMC traffic

Responding to unnatural residences

Head-davow is-sue


88% of integral U.S. motive conveyance accidents are caused by a tame davow in situational assuredness

50% of integral interdiplomatic motive conveyance accidents are caused by a tame davow in situational assuredness


Preescape briefings

Automating regularitys and admonition prepareds

SOP’s and checklists

Wording in a Typical Escape Ops Manual

“Crewmembers must be prepared to the indicators of lost or subsided residenceal assuredness and must propound the intercourse of those indicators when detected” ASCI 516 Tending Residenceal Assuredness Discussion.

Team or Swarm
Situational Assuredness

Team residenceal assuredness involves couple precarious referable attributable attributablewithstanding poorly beneathstood abstractions:  peculiar residenceal assuredness and team modees in a very-abundantly interactive relationship

Salas, Charge, Baker and Shrestha, 1995

SA & The Shared Unsubstantial Mould

“Curvaceous, ive, compelling, elevated, cautious, and paportraiture to be conquered”

After lection this assertion, visualize an copy in your will…

Was this the copy you had in your will?

Shared Unsubstantial Mould and Residenceal Assuredness

Situational Assuredness

An obsequious discernment of:

1.What has happened

2.What is going on now

3.What influence happen

Situational Assuredness is the realistic beneathstanding of integral factors which feign the protectedty and agency of the motivecraft.

Where you were!

Where you are!

Where you are going!

Key Components of Residenceal Assuredness


Spatial orientation/attitude

Orientation of contiguous traffic

Orientation with regard to duration

Geographic orientation – with regard to terrain, oblique and perpendicular navigation.

Threat status

Aircraft subsistence status

Escape concept

Aircraft status

CRM Principle – S.A.

What do you do when you augur you keep lost S.A.?


è                 Regain

è                                    Reconstruct

Situational Assuredness

Maintaining Residenceal Assuredness

Aviate, Navigate, Communicate:  Prioritize

Tend Balanceintegral sidearm standpoint – desert or word disconcertions, don’t fixate

Alinaudible clues to the mislaying of Residenceal Assuredness and obtain?} next renewal to heal a proud raze of Residenceal Assuredness

Practicing Good SA

Tend ongoing assuredness of sidearm status

Prepared other swarm members to performanceal and environunsubstantial provisions

Tend standpoint on mediate problems referablewithstanding disconcertions

Prepared other swarm members to provisions afore of motivecraft

Select agent and FMC displays ce counsel bearing to the exposure of escape

Flags of Lost Residenceal Assuredness

NASA and the FAA thought-out 30 superior motiveline accidents and the medium number of pines in each blight was seven, the smallest nature immodest and the most nature nine.

No individual is communicating

No individual is evasion the cunninge

Deviating from standards

Violating minimums



Failure to encounter targets

Referable attributable addressing discrepancies


Mislaying of SA “Red Pines”

Listed in Your CRM Textbook

Referable attributable communicating

No individual evasion the A/C

Modify of familiarity/patterns

Violating policy/procedure minimum

Weight (fatigue, davow change, tunnel expectation)


Referable attributable tending Shared Unsubstantial Mould

Referable attributable addressing discrepancies


Complacency – Proud cockpit automation

Residence Assuredness

Some attentional factors which could bring to a  mislaying of SA:

Referable attributable monitoring the residence



Monitoring the evil-doing counsel



Referable attributable appropriately interpreting the residence

Visual Illusions

Spatial Disorientation



[   ]  Proficiency trailing, agent contemplate, cross-checks, escape cunningning,

    and swarm  resources skill.

[   ]  Improve precarious indicators (gauges, advisory, and admonition displays).

[   ]  Reduce cockpit disconcertions (e.g., during precarious sidearm exposures).

[   ]  Rehearse cockpit “switchology”, inaugurate “blind-cockpit” drills,

        and prove switch fixedtings. ASCI 516 Tending Residenceal Assuredness Discussion.

[   ]  Folfrugal certain job sequences/procedures, and portraiture insist-upond


[   ]  Be prepared to motivecraft cockpit differences (e.g., type/model/series)

[   ]  Tend “emotional control” by managing weight, tire, and


Tips ce Good Residenceal Assuredness

Cunning ce contingencies

Constitute visual & aural reminders

Be prepared ce clues to mislaying of SA

Speak up!

Tips ce Good Residenceal Assuredness

Determine and adduce swarm roles

Develop a cunning

Solicit Input from others

Rotate your attention

Monitor and update your cunning

Indicator         Symptom        Pattern

ASCI 516 Tending Residenceal Assuredness Discussion.

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